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He initially developed it at the Kriegswirtschaftsmuseum Museum of War Economy in Leipzig during the First World War in order to illustrate to a lay audience the workings of the war economy see Schumann ; Carwright et al A typical example of the system from this period can be see in Figure 1 below, which illustrates the different types of economies found in the world and their distribution over various population groups, with their sizes. The toothed wheel represents modern industrial economies, the hammer economies based around skilled trades and agriculture, and the bow and arrow hunter and gatherer economies with primitive agriculture.

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Figure 1. During the s, Neurath developed his picture statistics to deal with an ever wider range of material, going beyond the purely statistical to cover historical narrative and procedural instructions e. Neurath ; Even if Neurath wanted to keep the linguistic claims of Isotype within limits, pictures and visual representation certainly occupied an important place in his philosophy of language. There is freedom in the possible abstractness of the spoken language, but also metaphysical danger; a picture language protects us from this:. What a triumph it was when people freed themselves from the limits of pictographic writing, what a triumph, when language adapted itself flexibly and in multiple forms to the demands of scientific work, when people learnt to master this logical tool.

Of course, liberation from the picture led also to diversions, led into the realm of the meaningless. Nominalisation created new problems. The pure pictographic writing recognises a sword and a table, but no being. Friedman On a purely theoretical level, pictures appealed to Neurath as the basis of a system of communication, especially of scientific communication, because of what he saw as their inherent connectedness to the world.

Foundations of the Unity of Science, Vol 2

Most of these are collected in Haller and Kinross Neurath [] and describe the system in detail. An example of the system in action can be found in Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftsmuseum , which contains reproductions from the original exhibits in the Vienna museum. See further the bibliography of Marie Neurath and Kinross The Gerd Arntz web archive , a website dedicated to the artist who contributed most to defining the visual style of Isotype, contains many examples of Isotype images.

Die reine Bildschrift kennt zwar ein Schwert und einen Tisch, aber kein Sein. Burke, Christopher.

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Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag, Carnap, Rudolf. The Unity of Science. London: Kegan Paul.

Scientific Pluralism and the Mission of History and Philosophy of Science

Erkenntnis 2 : Ayer, Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press. Otto Neurath: philosophy between science and politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Carus, A. Carnap and twentieth-century thought. Cohen, Robert S. Otto Neurath: philosophical papers Dordrecht: Reidel. Friedmann, Michael.

Chicago: Open Court. Gesellschafts- und Wirtschaftsmuseum Wien. Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft: bildstatistisches Elementarwerk. Leipzig: Bibliographisches Institut. Haller, Rudolf. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Haller, Rudolf and Robin Kinross, eds.

McElvenny, James. British Journal for the History of Philosophy. McGuinness, Brian, ed. Dordrecht: D. Uebel, Dordrecht: Kluwer.

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Neurath, Marie und Robert S. Cohen, eds.

Empiricism and Sociology. Neurath, Marie and Robin Kinross. Neurath, Otto. Original in The Monist Erkenntnis Vienna: Gerold and Co.

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Before emojis: the utopian graphic language of Marie and Otto Neurath

Original: Bildstatistik nach Wiener Methode in der Schule. Reisch, George A. Perspectives on Science In Cohen, Robert S. Philosophical papers, — Vienna Circle collection. Dordrecht; Boston: D.

Otto Neurath and the Unity of Science | SpringerLink

Foundations of the unity of science: toward an international encyclopedia of unified science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Vienna Circle: studies in the origins, development, and influence of logical empiricism. Vienna circle institute library. Cham: Springer Verlag. Retrieved 22 November May